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As data demands continue to grow, scientists predict that unless new technologies are being developed to transmit data or today's telecom networks reach their capacity limits, it is only a matter of time. A new technique can help avoid this bandwidth squeeze, which is possible with optical-based optical networks that are more than a hundred times more data-transferable than the current technology. The 30mw laser pointer beam has many different shapes, or spatial distribution patterns. However, today's optical networks use only one spatial pattern for information transmission, which limits the amount of data that can be transmitted at a time. Researchers led by Professor Andrew Forbes of King-soft University in South Africa have developed a technique called spatial multiplexing, which divides the laser beam into a number of spatial modes that allow information to be transmitted.
In a paper presented at the OSA Laser Conference in Boston, the researchers demonstrated a new spatial multiplexing approach for optical communication over 100 spatial modes, combined with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), which uses light of different wavelengths Carrying information. "We have created 35 spatial patterns encoded at three different wavelengths, resulting in a total pattern of 105," explains Carmelo Rosales-Guzmán, who is a researcher on the study and the lead author of the study. "Our new approach may serve as the basis for future communications technologies." The researchers show that in the free-space optical network of the lab, their technology can transmit data with 98% efficiency, that is, using this beam in air information. Scientists say the method can also be used in optical fiber, which is the basis of optical communication.
This new technique uses an orbital angular momentum, which gives it a distorted or helical shape. Different spatial patterns can be created by varying the number of zigzags, known as azimuth degrees of freedom. While other scientists have increased the bandwidth of the degree of freedom to explore the setting, in recent years, the study found that although in theory, orbital angular momentum model set is infinite, in practice there is not enough available models to make significant improvements . The Forbes team solved this problem by using degrees of freedom plus another variable called radial degrees of freedom. In theory, the degree of freedom of each azimuth has an unlimited number of radial degrees of freedom, but in practice there is a limit, limiting the number. Because all the patterns are orthogonal to each other, the signals are not confused because they are transmitted and can be separated after reaching their destination. The researchers say that this is the first time that two spatial degrees of freedom have been used for optically encoded information.
The key to this new approach is an optical device called a spatial light modulator. The researchers used a spatial light modulator to shape the 50mw laser pointer to various modes and had a reversal process at the receiver. "One of the advantages of our approach is that we only need a single detection of all the spatial patterns to recover all the information," Rosales-Guzmán said, "This is the other to increase the bandwidth and the need for multiple detectors faster. "
To test this new technology, researchers use it to encode a grayscale and color image. Each image is sent to a pixel of a communication link, and then each pixel is restored to the reconstructed image. For grayscale images, each gray level is linked to a single spatial pattern, allowing 105 gray scales to be transmitted. "In this demo, send a 10,000 pixel image in five to seven minutes," Rosales-Guzmán says, "but we can send two or four pixels at the same time or with multiple wavelengths to increase the transfer speed."
Real-world free-space optical networks can transfer information between buildings, but there are many challenges that are not yet found in the labs, and researchers collaborate with free-space communications specialists to adapt to their practical applications. "We have already experimented in South Africa to make this device capable of accommodating different spatial modes in free communication," says Rosales-Guzmán. "We are more than four times as hard at improving their equipment and are interested in current bandwidth . "
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